Infections can cause miscarriages and are transferred to the unborn during birth. Serious illnesses can leave permanent damage or even death. While there are currently a few infectious diseases, immunizations of the mother when already pregnant may be supplemented.
Chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis): chlamydial conjunctivitis and pneumonia in the newborn
Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae): Gonoblennorrhoe
Listeriosis (Listeria monocytogenes): Granulomatosis infantiseptica
Group B streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae): sepsis (early-onset) and meningitis (late-onset) in newborns
Syphilis (Treponema pallidum): congenital syphilis
Malaria (Plasmodium falciparum)
Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
Hepatitis B (hepatitis B virus, HBV)
Hepatitis E (hepatitis E virus, HEV)
Herpes simplex (herpes simplex virus, HSV) Herpes Neonatorum
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): The HIV virus is not necessarily transmitted from an infected pregnant woman to the unborn child. The probability of transmission during birth is high, if action is not appropriately taken. The risk of infection of a child by an HIV-infected mother during pregnancy or during birth without treatment is estimated at about 15 to 30 percent.
With known HIV infection of the mother, the risk of transmission can be reduced to the child by administering anti-retroviral medication and birth by cesarean section to less than 5 percent. The necessary measures to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV can only be successfully used if the HIV infection of the mother is known. Therefore the AWMF recommends to every pregnant woman, an HIV antibody test which must be at the consent of the pregnant woman.
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)
Measles (measles virus)
Mumps (Rubulavirus): miscarriage in the 1st Trimester
Slapped cheek disease (parvovirus B19): foetal anaemia, foetal hydrops
Rubella (Rubellavirus): Congenital rubella syndrome
Chickenpox (varicella-zoster virus, VZV) Varizellenembryofetopathie, perinatal: Neonatal Varicella
CMV (cytomegalovirus, CMV)